our nights are getting brighter, and earth is paying the price

by:BoomDear Wood     2020-01-05
On a clear night in 1994, an earthquake struck beneath Los Angeles, causing a city --
Power outage before dawn.
Some residents who stumbled outside woke up in panic and called emergency centers and a local observatory, reporting a mysterious cloud overhead.
This strange object turned out to be a band of the Milky Way, our home galaxy, which was long ago obscured by the lights of the city.
It can be said that the light bulb is the most transformative invention human beings introduced to the planet.
Just tap the switch or press the button and we can push the veil that naturally hangs over our lives every night.
Now, after the sun sank into the horizon, we worked for a long time.
We play games outside until the time is extended to double digits.
After dark, we walked more safely on the streets of the city.
But if there is a dark side to the light bulb, it is that they steal the night.
The excess light we pour into the environment is harming the ecosystem because the life cycle of these animals depends on darkness.
We put ourselves at risk by changing the biochemical rhythms that usually fluctuate with the level of natural light.
In the original sense, we have lost our connection to the night sky, and our ancestors woven tapestries of stars --
The story gathered, timing the cultivation and harvest of crops, and derived the laws of physics that govern the universe.
The disappearance of the night sky in our faster and faster time --
Amanda golmley of Tucson says it\'s a fast-paced world
International Dark headquartersSky Association.
We have lost something important;
When we can\'t get into the night sky, we lose a part of ourselves.
We lost the feeling of peace and awe that should be on our heads every night.
Now, as the consequences of light pollution slip into the spotlight from the shadows, cities, regulators and conservation groups are actively seeking solutions.
In some areas, under the impetus of a new wave of cheaper and more energy-saving, substantial improvements have been made --
Efficient bulb.
Without dark nights, it is easy to find places where humans live in density from space.
In some places where the light is heavily polluted, the sky is full of 99 light.
Without optical aids, 5% of the stars that people can see are completely invisible.
The sky is darker in more rural areas.
In these regions, the bands of our main galaxy, the Milky Way, are clearly visible.
World population living in light
Polluted sky * 83% * the brightness of the night sky directly exceeds 14,000 candela per square meter-
In bright cities like Las Vegas, there are faint traces of artificial light pollution at the top of the Sky (
Direct overhead)
From downtown to more than 40 miles away.
The maximum light range detected directly on Interstate 15, 70/43 miles, California\'s pollution may be lower-
Because the current satellite is unable to detect lighting from Bluewhite. LIGHTS.
The purpose of leaking fixed street lights is to illuminate the streets below, but their light is often poorly directed, causing poor brightness and increasing light pollution.
The Sky glowupward reflects bright light, direct light, useful light, Manuel Canales and Riley D.
NASA black marble;
Earth observation team of National Environmental Information Center (NOAA (NCEI);
Fabio Falki, Institute of light pollution science and technology;
Amanda Gormley and John Barentine, International darkness
Without dark nights, it is easy for humans to find dense places from space.
The sky is full of 99 degrees of light in some lightly polluted places, such as Singapore, Kuwait and the small countries of Marina.
Without optical aids, 5% of the stars that people can see are completely invisible.
The sky is darker in more rural areas.
According to the New World Atlas of artificial night sky brightness, residents of Chad, the Central African Republic and Malaysia are least affected by light pollution.
In these regions, the bands of our main galaxy, the Milky Way, are clearly visible.
Las Vegas, United States of AmericaS.
The population of South American countries living in the light accounts for 83%.
The polluted sky, the sky brightness of Antarctica, directly exceeds 14,000 candles per square meter at night. Far-
To achieve the desired effect, bright cities like Las Vegas, from the city center to more than 40 miles away, traces of artificial light pollution in the sky will persist.
Street lights are used to illuminate the streets below, but their light is often not well guided, causing poor brightness and increasing light pollution.
Light reflected upward in the sky 70 km/h up the light area direct light useful light on Interstate 15
Because the current satellite is unable to detect lighting from Bluewhite lights.
Manuel Canales and Riley D.
NASA black marble;
Earth observation team of National Environmental Information Center (NOAA (NCEI);
Fabio Falki, Institute of light pollution science and technology;
Amanda Gormley and John Barentine, International darkness
International Dark Sky Association
The Sky Association defines light pollution as inappropriate or excessive use of artificial light.
Multiple forms can be taken, including glare or excessive brightness;
The light of the sky flooded the night sky in urban areas;
The light invades, or the miscellaneous light falls where it is not needed;
Or a chaotic bright light source Group.
Although light pollution may not be as immediate toxic as a chemical leak, it is now one of the longest environmental disturbances on Earth.
In 2016, scientists estimated that 99% of people in the United States and the European continent experienced a certain degree of light pollution.
According to the observation of the Suomi NPP satellite, including nearly 80% of North Americans, the third category of individuals does not see the Milky Way.
Another study in 2017 showed that, globally, light pollution increased by about 2% per year from 2012 to the 6 th century, which may not sound much, but the percentage is compound.
It\'s not Sunrise: night lights in Los Angeles can be seen on a country road 90 miles away.
Recent estimates suggest that 99% of the population in the United StatesS.
European population living in the light
Polluted night sky
\"You will think that environmental organizations will be full of light pollution because it is such a complete waste,\" said Christopher Kyba of the German Center for Biological Sciences Research . \".
This is a place where energy consumption can be reduced and there is basically no loss for anyone.
For indoor lighting, switching to a new type of bulb is usually for energy saving as homeowners shift from traditional incandescent lamps to cheaper, brighter alternatives such as compact fluorescent lamps. Now, light-
LEDs (LEDs) are driving the revolution in indoor and outdoor lighting, which can lead to a significant reduction in energy consumption for individual consumers and the city as a whole.
When Los Angeles recently replaced more than 150,000 street lights with led, the city saved about $8 million a year, or more than 60% of its energy costs.
But while LEDs are cheaper than previous alternatives, they hide the cost.
People tend to use them too much.
These much brighter bulbs illuminate all areas, and without proper shielding, they emit a lot of wasted light in all directions.
In addition, the blue light wavelength emitted by cheap white LEDs common in street lamps bounces in the atmosphere and may increase the brightness of the sky.
As we all know, the effects of these wavelengths on animals, including humans, are more significant than the light emitted by other parts of the spectrum.
Compare bulbsLight-
LEDs (LEDs) are the gospel of saving energy and cost. But the blue-
The most commonly used white light today glows at temperatures that will increase light pollution and affect human health.
The progress of LED technology makes
Temperature bulbs are economical and practical.
Traditional incandescent lamps-
Energy-saving incandescent lamps (CFL)Light-emittingdiode (LED)ENERGY COST* (USD per year)$4. 80$3. 50$1. 20$1.
00 bulb life (maximum hours)
1,0003, 0003,00025, 000 * based on energy costs of 11 cents per kilowatt for 2 hours per day-HOUR.
Color temperature (Kelvin)Blue-
White led 7, 500 paper towels can have a range of color temperatures.
Direct sales of led, 800 K, recommended by light4 3,000 KThe American Medical Association.
Incandescent light source, warm white LEDs2 700 KCandle light1 900 KMANUEL the same depth.
Source of staff for ng champine: United States of AmericaS.
Department of Energy: Amanda golmley and John Valencia, the International Dark organization
Sky association light bulbsLight-
LEDs (LEDs) are the gospel of saving energy and cost. But the blue-
The most commonly used white light today glows at temperatures that will increase light pollution and affect human health.
The progress of LED technology makes
Temperature bulbs are economical and practical.
Annual energy cost * US.
The temperature is $25,000. 807,500 KBlue-
The American Medical Association recommends limiting led to 3,000 K.
Led can produce temperature of various colors. Energy-
Saved $3.
50 compact fluorescent lamps (CFL)
Direct sunlight 4,800 Kanye Blue-
White fluorescent 200 K $1. 20Light-LEDs (LED)$1.
003,0001, 000 incandescent lamp, warm white LEDs2, 700 K $0.
Thousand hour 1,900 KCandle light * based on the energy cost of using 2 hours a day, 11 cents per kilowatt-HOUR.
Manuel Canales and Riley D.
NG staff is still flat. SOURCE: U. S.
Department of Energy;
Amanda Gormley and John Barentine, International darkness
Unfortunately, it is tricky to measure the actual effects of LEDs from orbit, as most of the Earth
Observation satellites are not sensitive to light at these wavelengths.
In the kyba illumins 2017 study, which relies on orbiting satellites, light pollution in the United States seems to have remained more or less stable.
Kyba suspected that our Sky was actually brighter, and he attributed the flat surface to the inability to see a blue satellite. white LEDs.
He and others said that Darking, warming and shielding LEDs are very beneficial for dark skies and energy budgets.
Well done, LEDs can save the Earth in the sense of controlling light pollution, and astronomers John Valencia said he is also a member of the International Dark organizationSky Association.
It can be devastating to do it accidentally.
As early as an autumn morning in 1990, just after dawn, Michael Mercer strolled through the financial district of torunto, walking down the street between the city\'s tallest and brightest buildings.
It was a fairly normal routine for Mesure, who regularly collected and recorded casualties the night before at dawn and tried to rescue and repair the injured.
Everywhere I look, he recalls, there are dead bodies on the sidewalk.
Like many cities, the lights at night in torunto are often fatal to birds.
Lost birds are blinded by strong lights or attracted by artificial lights, flying into glittering windows or hitting buildings, sometimes rolling hundreds of feet on the sidewalk below. Mesure, who co-
A non-profit organization Fatal Light Awareness Project (FLAP)
It is estimated that tolento\'s buildings kill tens of thousands of birds every year.
On the list of casualties, sparrows, large birds, jungle birds, Naruto, King and cremation are just some of these species.
A large part of these deaths occur during the day, but artificial lighting makes the night deadly and the effect can be surprisingly difficult to see.
As he patrolled dawn in his 90 s, he noticed that seagulls were cleaning up the bird\'s body.
No wonder people don\'t know it\'s a problem, he said.
When people come to work, all the birds are gone. âx80x9dA long-
Exposure images of the Sydney Opera House reveal the ghost footprints of birds flying above the massive floodlights.
Local and migrating species are attracted to artificial night lights, which often lead them astray, killing hundreds of millions of birds each year.
Today, volunteers at the flap mall are still patrolling six blocks in the financial district to get data from the city\'s sidewalks before seagulls and cleaners arrive.
They found that most of the deaths occurred in spring and autumn, when artificial lights greatly affected migratory birds, especially those who traveled overnight and were attracted to the urban environment by bright city lights.
Multiplying the death toll in torunto by every similar city in North America, it is clear that millions of migratory birds die of excessive light each year.
Even if we are far from the center of the city, our desire for light is taking lives away.
The researchers have identified a series of shocking
Urban species including bats, insects, plants, fish, turtles, marine mammals including corals, and even primates.
In Australia, Kelly Robert studied the reproductive cycle of tammar wallaby.
This small marsupial synchronized its fertility with faded light levels after the summer solstice, resulting in delivery after six weeks, and then when the food resources reached their peak, the demand for the mother was also
Robert of the University of Melbourne La Trobe said that the kangaroo only needs a few nights, and only three minutes of light can activate reproduction.
Studies separated by 147 describe the average date of birth within five days of each other.
But Robert saw something different in the two kangaroos she studied on Garden Island.
A man lives near a naval base bathed in heights.
Pressure sodium lamps, another living in undisturbed bushes, where the waxing and weakening moon cause the maximum fluctuation of light at night.
Since the invention of the light bulb before 150, artificial lighting has illuminated homes, streets and the sky, but it has also brought some unexpected consequences.
Understand the main types of light pollution, their impact on human health, and the fact that the glow of artificial light around the world may continue to grow.
After more than five years of research, after six weeks, the jungle Wallabies produced offspring. solstice.
However, the urban population is late for four weeks, which may result in a mismatch between peak offspring demand and food supply.
The city\'s population makes up for the gap by eating snacks on the irrigation lawn.
Robert suspects that night lights suppress the secretion of kangaroo hormones, which usually peak during periods of increased darkness.
\"We expect to see the same effect in other seasonal breeding species where reproductive activity is affected by changes in light levels,\" Robert said . \".
For thousands of years, the rhythm shift between day and night has also controlled our physiology, triggering biological cues that help us sleep at night, wake up in the morning, and stay healthy.
Night physiology depends on darkness.
It doesn\'t depend on sleep, says Richard Stevens, an epidemiology at Connecticut State University, who has studied the connection between light pollution and human health for decades.
What we need is a longer physiological night.
The connection between light and biology begins with the photon hitting our retina, triggering the signal to reach the neuron called the nucleus on the optic Cross;
This knot is a key regulator of the brain\'s pineal gland, which produces melatonin.
Through this pathway, melatonin usually starts to rise at sunset and peaks around midnight, releasing a series of sleep-regulating reactions --
Wake up the cycle, reduce body temperature, slow down metabolism, and increase the amount of insulin, a hormone that reduces appetite.
For humans, it is very important not to be hungry in the middle of the night, because if you are foraging, you will become food, Stevens said.
Whether it\'s a computer screen, a bright emergency light, or a strong street light flashing through our windows, indoor and outdoor lights interfere with these by hindering the normal ebb and flow of melatonin
Obesity is a consequence of the disruption of light to our nocturnal physiology, as it may be associated with a sustained low level of lepints.
According to some studies, low melatonin levels and circadian disorders are also considered to play a role in heart disease, diabetes, depression and cancer, especially breast cancer, which are particularly notable, Stevens said.
The consequences of night shift workers, such as truck drivers and flight attendants, are particularly serious, and they are case studies of chaotic circadian biology.
In 2007, the World Health Organization actually announced that shift work was a risk factor for cancer.
On 2012, the American Medical Association warned that the widespread use of night lighting could have potentially harmful health effects and/or dangerous situations.
The psychological effects of losing the night sky should not be underestimated.
A psychologist at the University of California, Berkeley, said the star
On a clear night, a splash of canvas spinning over the top of the head creates a sense of wonder and awe that may translate into positive human behavior.
In laboratory studies, participants who have recently experienced this feeling scored higher in the evaluation of scientific reasoning, were kinder, more selfless, and less materialistic.
Philosophers, he says, write an article about how a beautiful sky makes you feel like a part of a big thing, such as something sacred, such as something purposeful.
In contrast, the smoky sky or the polluted night sky hanging over you has a great impact on your consciousness.
If there is a mascot in the fight against light pollution, it may be a small turtle.
The destructive effects of coastal light on these threatened organisms may be the most common.
But at least in Florida, the race to save the turtles has finally turned around.
Among other navigation aids, turtle chicks use the moonlight reflected at the top of the waves as a guide to sea.
But on the same coast line in Florida, high-rise buildings, resorts, bars, shopping malls, restaurants and homes sparkled, where more than 90% of turtles nest in the United States.
These bright lights create countless false moons and stunning Bright Horizons, with the little turtles lost their way and rambling heavily on roads or properties.
For a small couple, every minute on land means avoiding a series of winged, wheel and walking hazards.
When the sun rises, a land that is lost
The locked turtle is almost dehydrated, overheated and easy to pick for predators.
Even among those who reach the ocean, only one out of 10,000 can live to adulthood.
David Godfrey, executive director at Gainesville, says thousands of hatcheries are lost every year
Turtle Protection Center.
Light pollution is one of the two highest sources of death for hatching turtles along our coastline.
So, he and his colleagues have been slowly re-
Illuminate the Florida coast with the help of turtles
Friendly lighting regulations allocated by the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation and nearly $10 million in oil spill recovery funds.
For the owners, they start free of charge from the hot spots and properties where the lighting regulations pass the lost direction that existed before.
It\'s been almost 10 years since the project started, and Godfrey says the owners are very happy with the newer, more energy --
One or two houses use efficient lights from turtles.
Friendly lighting, as does the neighboring property.
The new lighting design follows three main principles that protect not only turtles, but also humans and other wildlife.
Some of these principles may be adopted by individual homeowners, while others require the municipal authorities to replace street lights and other public facilities.
A key step is to keep the lights below the ground.
Not the lighting parking month-
Golfrey said that the foot pole, the lamp with only 10 feet high can do this.
Walking walkway
The lights on the ground are as effective as those on the top of the head.
Light pollution experts also recommend shielding the lamps so that they can illuminate the target directly instead of wasting light in each direction.
Homeowners can also consider installing timers, dimmers, or motion sensors to turn on out-of-room lights only when needed.
The most important thing for light is
Sensitive animals, outdoor fixtures should be used for a longer period of time
Not bright, but wavelength LEDs. white lights.
For example, turtle chicks do not respond to light bulbs that glow with warm amber.
This type of light is actually better for humans as well, based on research into how our bodies react to blue --
White light common in newer TVs and smartphones.
Although the original transformation may cost some money
Godfrey said that in the long run, the energy bills saved are usually 70% lower than before.
Install turtles along the coast of Florida
A single friendly outside light
Household housing costs range from $1,500 to $4,000;
The price of a small apartment building may be around $25,000, while the price of a large resort or apartment building may be between $30,000 and $80,000.
So far, the team has partnered with hundreds of properties on a 25-mile beach while monitoring the lost direction before hatchingand post-retrofit.
He said that in front of every property we renovate, the ratio of lost direction has been zero, noting that they are working with properties in other turtle nesting hotspots, such as Costa.
As long as we have money, we will continue to do this project.
Park ranger and education director Patrick Taylor hosted a night sky photography conference in the dark sky park of Death Valley.
As the consequences of light pollution become more and more obvious, lighting regulations are beginning to evolve.
Canada passed.
Friendly lighting (
And construction)
Law in the medium term
More than 1990 years old, now many cities including Toronto, Washington, D. C. C.
And New York for a light show-
Carry out activities during the high season of immigration.
In 2016, the American Medical Association responded to growing evidence that strong LEDs were harmful to human health and suggested that the community change street lights to minimize and control Blue
Rich environment lighting.
The whole city is starting again.
To recycle the night and reduce energy waste, they made the lights.
Flagstaff, Arizona is the first city to be designated as a Dark Sky Community by the International Dark organization.
The Sky Association and Chicago are transforming their fixtures.
So far, the data has not supported hesitation in the rise in crime or the fall in safety at night caused by dimmers, sparse lighting;
In Chicago\'s West Garfield Park, more bright alleys have actually led to an increase in crime reporting.
Interestingly, it is found that in areas where there is no light, less conspicuous lights are more visible because our eyes adapt to the darkness faster.
For some cities, eliminating light pollution is also a way to increase tourism revenue while strengthening human connection with the night sky.
Take Jasper town, Alberta as an example.
Located in the remote Canadian Rocky Mountains, Jasper is a paradise for those who love mountains, wildlife and outdoor activities.
Just a few minutes drive out of town, stargazers will see a dazzling array of Night Wonders
Stars and satellites hidden from meteorites and northern lights.
The city has held a dark sky festival in the fall since 2010, attracting thousands of people.
But Jasper residents are not content to see night miracles only outside their borders.
The town is now working with lumica, a Canadian company that works with the International Dark Forces.
Sky Association, re-
Do all the street lights.
Scheduled to start this summer, about 400 fixtures in town will be replaced by Shield LEDs set to have a color temperature between 1,700 and 2,200 Kelvin, which while limiting the more harmful blue wavelength, effectively emit amber-like light.
What caught our attention at first was how terrible all these new LED street lights looked;
Gary in prison.
Laura Mitchell of Lumican Mitchell said, like, and too bright.
When she realized that such a street lamp would erase the stars and destroy the ecosystem, the company turned to fight against light pollution.
Throughout North America and Europe, dark sky parks are on the rise and festivals like jasmine are booming.
People start to reconnect the sparkling canvas, it hovers overhead like technology becomes available on scale, and if we choose to use them, it will help humans to take back more of this natural night
Christopher Kyba, a global scientist studying light pollution, pointed out that the van gogh\'s cafe Terrace at Night is his ideal night scene.
This is the dream of beautiful, warm, unified lighting that you want to have.
You can see that there are many stars on it, and there is no light on the front, he said.
You look like a hundred people.
Idealized lighting has been seen in the past few years.
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